YDNA haplogroup I and main subclades

Haplogroup I – Proto-Europeans

Haplogroup I was absorbed by the Slavs with the haplogroup R1a in the Slavic countries and co-creates the Slavic ethnos together with the language community (with the exception of Hungary and Romania). In Western Europe hg I together with R1b and partly R1a is part of several ethnos. Even the Scandinavian countries, considered to be the cradle of Nordic ethnos, have not maintained linguistic uniformity, although it must be admitted that the migration of R1a and R1b did not dominate this haplogroup as it happened in the rest of Europe. One can suspect that Scandinavia was a kind of enclave without hostile colonization, and the newcomers assimilated with the local population. In turn, the numerical development of hg R1b and I2 in the areas of Western Europe was caused by a mild climate and relative calmness. The expansion of peoples from Central Asia and the Transcaucasas reached Europe from the east, and it was the Slavs who had to defend themselves and the rest of Europe from enemies. In addition, I would like to point out that the mixing of people with different genes does not always mean migrations of large groups of people and conquests, but only migrations of YDNA genes, ie men who managed to build an appropriate social status and, as a result, large clans. For example, Hg I2a-Din has his progenitor – the founder of the clan – who lived between 1800-300BC (I2a1b2a1a1 Y3120) and currently has 24 million of his male descendants. I gave him the name Skyton.

YDNA Haplogroup  I is described as old-European and consists of two subgroups (I1 + I2). It is the third largest in Europe (around 20%), with the largest number of men with this mutation living in Russia and Germany, a total of 28%. I1 dominates in Western Europe and I2 in Slavic Europe.

The geographical distribution Hg I is as follows:

Western Europe: 31 mln (I1: 23 mln, I2: 8 mln)

Slavic Europe: 36,5 mln (I2: 28 mln, I1: 8,5 mln)

Haplogroup I2 has several significant subgroups such as Sardinian, Isles, Dinaric and pre-Celto-Germanic. The largest is Dinaric, which occurs almost entirely in Slavic Europe.


Haplogroup I1 Nordic

Haplogroup I is described as old-European. Its largest part, or hg I1, was named Nordic (Nordic / Germanic). Currently, this name is only symbolic, because in Scandinavia understood as Denmark, Norway and Sweden live only 3.5 million men of I1 (Europe -32 million). The share of I1 in the population of these countries is 38% and this is the only justification for the name. Also today, there is no Nordic ethnos associated with the majority of this haplogroup population. It is dispersed throughout Europe as part of other nations, and the largest number of its representatives live in Germany (20% of the population of I1), Great Britain (12%), Russia (10%), France, Sweden and Poland (5%). Historically Hg I1 does not originate entirely from Scandinavia, because it has developed mainly in Central and Western Europe and partly in the North-East. Let’s also remember that hg I (together with R1a and R1b) settled Scandinavia from central and western Europe. In Scandinavia during the first millennium of our era, hg I1 was a small population. In the Roman period, a million inhabitants could live there, so I estimate that men from Hg I1 are estimated at 100-200 thousand for a few million for hg I in whole Europe.

Therefore, assigning the whole haplogroup I1 to the Nordic ethnos is unjustified. Regarding the second part of the name Germanic, its application is justified if we understand Germania as an area from the Rhine to the Vistula, and not the Germanic ethnos. Only few average Europeans know this and Germanie is Germans for them, just like the Prussians were also Germans. Therefore, the use of this name, although justified, is not good, because it preserves the historical untruth.

The most appropriate name for this haplogroup: northern and western old-european / Northern & Western Proto-Europeans

Please note that the I1 population in Poland (around 1.6 million men) is similar to that in Sweden and much larger than in Norway or Denmark. In a sense, we belong to the Nordic countries, because Poles, while maintaining Slavic ethnos, have cultural and moral elements closer to the northern region of Europe than to southern or Russian.

The Nordic peoples were given this name late, because if I’m not mistaken in the 19th century. There are names like Nordic Bronze Age, Nordic Stone Age and the Nordic race, Nordic Vandals, Goths, Vikings, etc. Among Vandals they constituted about 6%. Probably among the Goths it was similar. Only among the Vikings could there be more of them.


Haplogroup I2a1b2 Dinaric

It is the largest among the hg I2 subclades.

A map of the frequency of the haplogroup I2a1 (including the Dinaric, Sardinian and Isles groups) as a percentage of the population in a given area.

The map does not show that the majority of men in this haplogroup live in Russia and Ukraine – about 40% of the I2a1 population. Where there is the darkest map area,  in the former Yugoslavia, lives only 10% I2a1. Without knowing these numbers, many people interested in population genetics make mistakes.

It is discussed in detail in separate articles.

Haplogroup I2a1a Sardinian

Haplogroup Sardinian (I2a-Sardinian) – also the name results from its large share among the inhabitants of Sardinia (40%), but numerically small, only about 350 thousands men on this island. It comes from the same trunk as the Dinaric, and the separation or creation of this mutation occurred about 3,500 years BC. Dominates in Spain and France. It is a surprise that there is a small population in Romania, but it may be a statistical error in the small number of samples. Nevertheless, it is a historically and historically haplogroup in many parts of Europe. However, it only survived in the Mediterranean basin, the British Isles and Germany. The presence in Sardinia in such a large percentage of this haplogroup is not connected with the Vandals, but with the settlement of the island in a much earlier period. Maybe it was some sailing people? Phoenicians, Carthage? It is a haplogroup that has survived, but it has not developed like the Dinaric.

Haplogroup I2a2 pre-celto-germanic

The third population of the haplogroup I according to Eupedia, which is part of the pre-Celto-Germanic people in the period of 5000-1200 BC. I can not resist to comment on this word-formation freak. We know that Germany has a huge problem with its identity and historical ethnos, hence the word Germanic in the various names of the haplogroup, which further confirms the lack of a unified historical ethnos older than 1000 years (personally I think that you can even adopt a few hundred years with a breakthrough in the integration of nations in Germany in the 19th century). In addition, they want to show that half of Europe has Germanic roots in German meaning. The presence of hg I2a2 in many countries and ethnicities (eg France, Italy, Poland, Russia) can not be justified solely by migrations from the area of ​​present Germany or Scandinavia in the late Roman Empire or the Middle Ages. It has developed in various regions of Europe, but most dynamically in Central Europe. The credibility of the figures of Eupedia and Wikipedia is very doubtful for this haplogroup, I think it is based on a small number of samples in statistical surveys in other countries outside Western Europe. For example, Eupedia rounds data and states that in Russia there is 0% of this haplogroup, and in fact it can be even 0.5%, which gives a population of 300,000, maybe a small one, but confirms the presence of this haplogroup in different regions of Europe and it is more than eg in Belgium or Switzerland.

Archaeological excavations and bone DNA tests indicate the presence of this haplogroup in many parts of Europe for thousands of years. The intention of the person or persons who introduced the name pre-Celto-Germanic was to indicate that it concerns the population before Celts and Germans depending on the region of Europe. Nevertheless, if we are talking about the presence of this haplogroup in Poland, then almost everything will be associated – looking at the name – with the settlements of Celts and Germans. Few people distinguish the prefix and proto prefix, and these are two different things. Equally well, the name hg I2a2 could be pre-Celto-Germanic-Slavic.

According to Francalacci’s research, this haplogroup accounted for about 30% of Vandals (R1a 35%!). This suggests that central Europe was then inhabited by a large population hg I2a2. Anyway, I personally derive Vandals not from Scandinavia, but from Central Europe. This mixture of R1a, I2a2, R1b (24%) and 6% I2a1b (dinaric) and I1 may be representative of this region during the Roman Empire. Looking at the contemporary contribution of the haplogroup, one can conclude that hg pre-Celto-Germanic has not been as successful as Dinaric, although I2a2 is 10,000 years older than Dinaric.

Haplogroup I2a1b1 Isles

Haplogroup I2a-Isles is the smallest in its class. The largest populations are in the British Isles (hence the name – an isles haplogroup.) It is also present in France and other countries (small clans). A small group is the Bulgarian clan, whose members identify with the Thracian-Bessi Tribe Thracian tribe. at the same time as dynarska. It survived, but it did not develop as dynarska.

It was not difficult to reach the British Isles. Until 9,000 years ago, an area called Doggerland was connected to the continent at a time when the level of oceans was about 100 meters lower. Water was then trapped in glaciers.


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