This period includes the Bronze Age and Iron Age. These are the times of ancient Greece and Romen Empire and many state organizations in Central and Eastern Europe. It ends with the fall of the Roman Empire in the west. The crucial periot in the development of the Dinaric haplogroup was the 1st millennium BC.
In Neolithic, native peoples in central Europe with haplogroups R1a, R1b, I1, I2 lived in small groups, leading the way of life basically settled down. They were mainly farmers and hunters, benefiting from the enormous wealth of animals in forest areas. Nevertheless, for various reasons they migrated, and it consisted not in seasonal migrations, but in moving to other areas during periods counted by generations. Archaeologists discover settlements, inhabited caves, stone circles, earth tombs and cemeteries.
In turn, the Black Sea , Caspian and Hungarian Plain steppes dominate the nomads moving all over the territory of the Great Steppe in Asia and Europe. The nomadic population of the steppe population consisted of seasonal migration to other areas of grazing cattle and sheep. Genetic and archaeological research confirms that these migrations were both ways: from Asia to Europe and vice versa. The European point of view mainly speaks of the influx of steppe populations into Europe. Similarly, people from the Middle East, or Iranian (Aryans). There is little talk about common Eurasian roots, especially Indo-European ones, which must be referred to both Persia and India as well as to the West Steppe.
The Great Steppe was crucial for the history of Asia and Europe. At that time the best place for the development of agriculture was the areas of the Black Sea (Pontian) steppe, which resulted in the creation of specific social and quasi-state structures. Climatic conditions forced the community of the Great Steppe to have a similar way of life and identical hierachic structures.
- The family community is also called an aul – a basic social unit on the steppe, consisting of 20 to 100 shepherds with families. Within one family, the property of cattle, sheep and horses was common and they were also responsible for it. The aul consists of a colony of special tents – yurt (usually one for each family) and the circle of pastures surrounding the colony concentrically.
- A tribal community – all related aules formed them with each other. Usually within the tribe it was possible to distinguish the leading one – which was a kind of “mother-aul”, or the original aul, from which all the others were created through the division mechanism. Within the tribal community, there was a kind of weak solidarity between the villages – i.e. when a given tribe was in conflict with another, there was a temporary unity of shepherds from the entire tribe against the common enemy. In general, however, even within one tribe, there was constant competition and a fight for better pastures that prevented the creation of permanent social structures over the aules.
- Orda – during periods of drought the struggle for pastures was intensified, both within and between tribes. Often, lost aules that could not find free pastures necessarily abandoned their herds, joined in larger groups, and armed with packets invaded the still thriving aules, living only from robbery. The packets, which were particularly successful in robbery, attracted further losses in the struggle for the pastures of the aul, which on the one hand increased their military power, but on the other forced a constant escalation of robbery, because all members of the horde lived only from this. Once started, the process of creating the horde continued until the horde came across a stronger opponent. In periods of drought, when the inflow of new aules to the horde was strong and the resistance of the aules still remaining from pastoralism was weak, in the end all tribes transformed into hordes. This horde was subordinated first to other, nearby tribes, and when there was no one to rob on the territory of the Great Steppe, its attack was directed to neighboring countries with normal agricultural economy.
The most western part of the Great Steppe – the Pontic Pontine (Black Sea) is a unique area due to the milder climate (proximity to the Atlantic and the seas) than the continental steppes. In addition, extremely fertile due to chernozem and relatively wet with a network of rivers. Therefore, he was extremely attractive to nomads, but also to settle on it and cultivate the land. It is not surprising that this area has become an area of exceptional development of the abundant human population and migration from this area, primarily the R1a and I2 haplogupa to other territories. It has been happening for thousands of years with more or less intensity. The predominant type of the soil of the present-day Ukraine is black (dark gray area on the map next) occupying about 60% of the country, which accounts for nearly 40% of the global resources of this type of soil. They occur in the steppe and lasostep zone. In the west, the steppes bordered a large area of temperate forest. They are also human-friendly and easy to transform into agricultural areas, while maintaining hunting and collection traditions. It should be noted, however, that the attractiveness of the areas is also competition and wars.
During the existence of the Roman Empire and its successor – the East Roman Empire, an additional element appeared. The empire robbing a large part of Europe was rich, and so it used to be a sacrifice for others. The people living in the Great Step joined in armed structures called ordai, khanate, or kaganatami, which invaded the countries bordering the Great Steppe, significantly affecting their history. This also applies to Russia, China and Persia. These sedentary armies were also joined by settled tribes that were in the zones of influence or in the neighborhood of khanate or kaganat.
However, some of the residents of this area were settled and they were farmers. This applies to the old-European haplogroup I2, who were not steppe nomads. Otherwise, they would be present in Asia, and there is no haplogroup I2. It also seems that the first Neolithic migrations from Asia R1a and R1b genes did not show the steppe-nomadic nature. Of course, this is related to the taming of the horse and cattle breeding, which happened later and both had to take place so that the steppe lifestyle could occur. Only later arrivals from Asia or Eastern Europe were actually steppe nomads (Sarmaten, Scytians, Alans, Huns, Awars, Bulgars). Though not everyone, but those living in the steppes. Many of them abandoned this nomadic lifestyle and settled permanently.
The steppe social model has developed negative traits of aggressiveness and material culture based on the enrichment of individuals. The cultural relationship with nature should be considered a positive element.
Migrations of peoples were also influenced by climate change. The logic of these phenomena is not unambiguous. For example, if the climate in Scandinavia cooled, it is only natural that the tribes moved south. In turn, when it warmed up, the population grew rapidly and … also migrated – not only to the north but also to the south. The history of ancient times speaks primarily of continuous migrations from the north or from the east. It results from the location of Greece and the Roman Empire, and from this perspective they observed the movements of the population. Migration to the north or east was not visible to them. We have knowledge of these directions from archeology and genetics, where it is difficult to determine the names of tribes, and only culture can be defined because material goods and technologies have moved independently of migration.
In the late Neolithic, around 2,500 years of BC migrations have reached Central Europe, because in the DNA samples of this period there are about 75% of the ancestors of the Yamna culture. This steppe origin occurs in all archaeological samples of Central European DNA (up to about 1000 years BC) and is common in today’s Europeans. It seems that the present Europeans are mainly descendants of the steppe people, arrived in the period 2500-1000 years BC. Haplogroups R1b and R1a were dominat.
The culture of pit graves – Yamnaya- archaeological culture dated to around 3400-2700 BC It developed in the steppes of Eastern Europe.
As a result of climate change or the pressure of migration from the east, the population moved from the steppes to mainly temperate forest areas. This could have forced the inhabitants of the Caspian-Black Sea region of R1, R1b, I1 and I2 haplogroups to live, for example, in the Carpathians, Polesia, and the forests of Central Europe, that is areas seemingly less friendly than steppes. It turned out that the nomadic lifestyle and moving to new areas gives a positive stimulus for population development through genetic reinforcement. Some of the old inhabitants of these regions join these migrations (voluntarily or are forced) and this has been beneficial for them. Groups living in enclaves, non-mobile, lose their YDNA haplogroups over time, and their mutations disappear. Perhaps this is how the Dacians disappeared and the emptiness of settlements appeared.
Old-European haploplopa, dinaric I2a1b2 arises around 9000 years BC. and is present throughout Europe. Also on the Black Sea steppes, perhaps on the borders with forests and in the area of numerous rivers. It gradually moves from the hunters-gatherers phase to settled agricultural mode. In this state, there is contact with steppe nomads during the Yamna culture. There is a genetic exchange and lifestyle between these groups. Also for exchanging goods and technologies.
In Roman Empire and later times continues although the nomadic mode is transformed into a more settled and typically agricultural one. Nevertheless, for various reasons, even entire districts migrate across thousands of kilometers (Magyars, Bulgarians, White Croats, Vandals), sometimes under the influence of new peoples from the east of Asia or the Middle East with genes G and J, for example, Turkish, Iranian, Mongolian peoples but they do not leave a significant genetic trace. I mean Huns, Avars and Pechenegs. The Slavic ethnos and population have developed. As a result of the next wave of migration begun about 300 years CE, the DinA, DinB and DinC Haplogroups are spreading in the area from the Volga to the Elbe and the Balkans with varying intensity, but it is not visible until the end of the 6th century AD there were some significant local mutations, characteristic for eg nations or countries. Therefore, such mutations should be sought later. Unfortunately, he does not have the proper results of YDNA tests. Then intense migrations started in the 500 BC are weakening and end around 1200 AD. Not everyone changed their lifestyle to settled eg. Vlachs, who until the 19th century were wanderers.
Scythians and Sarmatians warriors
Linking the haplogroup Dinaric with Scythians and Sarmatians is the only possible explanation for the success of this mutation. The largest population of this haplogroup is currently in the territories of Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Poland and Belarus, so in an area similar to the ancient Scythians and Sarmatians. Western and southern Balkans are later migrations.
Probably one of the settled natives with haplogupa I2a1ba1a joined the arrived Scythians (Royal?) or Sarmatians and became a part of their aristocracy. Thanks to social status, he gave birth to the population of Dinaric/Slavic haplogroup. There is also possibilty of the romance of Scythian princess with a local low-grade man.
It probably happened in the area of present Ukraine in the period from the 10th century to the 5th century BC. One can also put forward the thesis that the aristocratic hapologroup I was one of the pillars of the Scythian-Sarmatian state on the western frontiers of their influence.
This is the reason for calling this ancestor Skyton (Scython). His three descendants (grand grand … grandchildren) with the DinA, DinB and DinC mutations gave rise to three great Dinaric populations. The period of these mutations is 300 BC (range 600 BC-50 AD), so it suits the times Scythian / Sarmatian.
The most probable area for the Dinaric mutations DinA, DinB, DinC is the territory of present Ukraine, Moldova or Romania. The local people in these areas were the Bastarnaes and their participation in the development of the Dinaric haplogroup population is highly probable.
Bastarnae (Latin variants: Bastarni, Basternae, Ancient Greek: Βαστάρναι or Βαστέρναι) are ancient tribes, which in the periot 200 BC – 300 CE lived in the region between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River, north and east of the ancient Dacia. Greco-Roman writers among of the Bastarnaes distinguished the Peucens (Peucyni) who occupied the region north of the Danube delta.
Bastarn’s affiliation is ambiguous in ancient records. They are described as Germanic, Celtic or Scytho-Sarmatian tribes. The name Bastarnae appears in the relations relating to the third century BC – as a Celtic people according to the information contained in the works of Diodorus, Polibius and Titus Livius, Germanic, as Tacit or Scythian-Sarmatians wrote about them according to Strabon. Theories of their origin are based on ancient records and archaeological cultures, but so far no significant archaeological sites have been identified that can be clearly attributed to the Bastarnae. Celtic, Germanic, Scytian or Sarmatian origin are more geographical than ethnic. Nevertheless, they are mentioned separately from Dacians with whom they were adjacent and there are no recorded wars between them. Also, like the Dacians, they disappeared as separate groups and were definitely absorbed by the ethnos of the Slavs. This is when the Bastarns inhabited the area north and east of the Carpathians is also unknown. One of the theories speaks of their arrival from the north, where they had headquarters over the lower Vistula. Others consider Bastarnaes homeland to be a historical Galicia (Polish-Ukrainian) from where they moved along the Carpathians to today’s Moldavia and Bessarabia, reaching the Danube delta.
Shchukin argues that the Bastarnaes ethnicity was unique and instead of trying to call it Celtic, Germanic or Sarmatian, it must be assumed that the “Bastarnaes were Bastarnaes”. Batty argues that assigning “ethnicity” to Bastarnaes is irrelevant, in the context of the Pontian-Danube region of the Iron Age, with many overlapping peoples and languages. Ethnicity was a very fluid concept: it could change quickly and often, in accordance with the socio-political situation. This was especially true of Bastarnaes, who exist in a relatively large area.
The Bastarnaes lived mostly on the edge of the Black Sea steppe in forest and steppe zones in uplands and in mountain valleys. They could settle these areas in the pre-Scythian period, that is, before mentioning them in Greek books. They could keep their separate ancient European ethnos (haplogroup I) for a very long time and assimilate new arrivals or were dominated by Indo-European steppe nomads in the first or second millennium BC. The second option about their Indo-European roots is more certain. Still, they kept separate to Greek times, when they appeared in descriptions. This correlates with the similarities described to the Germanic tribes (including Western Slavs) between the Rhine and the Vistula. There could also be a similar phenomenon where new migrations either assimilated with the natives or created a new ethnos. Thus the tribes were differentiated, but distant tribes could show similarity.
In the first millennium BC it is difficult to talk about the Nordic or Germanic influences connected with the I1 haplogroup, because at that time it was completely marginal. Migration the Goths or Vandals tribes directly from Scandinavia is a legend. The area from Elbe to Vistula is more likely as their homeland. I would like to exclude the version that Bastarnaes culture was from Scandinavia. The continuity of settlement in the Carpathian area occurs from the Neanderthals. No Nordic or proto-Celtic, let alone proto-German, has to bring culture or technology there. Rather it was the opposite. I believe that the Great Steppe nomads have had contact with various European-Asian civilizations and have transferred new technologies, knowledge and etc.. We have a similar ethnic situation with the Dacians or Thracians, who kept their separate character. It is believed that it was an Indo-European population. According to archaeological research, the Dacians (or their immediate ancestors) appeared in these areas already around 1700 BC. and inhabited them until the end of Roman Empire, but in a slightly changed ethnic composition. The Bastarnaes could likewise have been present north of the Dacians for 2,000 years BC and their etnos was changing.
Strabo thinks Roxolans, widely regarded as a Sarmatian tribe, as a sub-group of Bastarnaes. However, this may be due to the proximity of two nations north of the Danube delta. In the third century, the Greek historian Dio Cassius states that “Bastarnaes are properly classified as Scythians” and “members of the Scythians race”. Similarly, a historian from the sixth century, Zosimus, who reports on the events around 280 AD, refers to “Bastarianaes, the people of the Scythians.” It seems, however, that these late Greco-Roman chroniclers used the term “Scytians” more often in the geographical sense or the elite of these peoples, and not ethnic. For example, Zosimus routinely also refers to the Goths as “Scythians”. It is possible that some Bastarnaes could be assimilated by nearby (and probably dominant) Sarmatians, perhaps by adopting their language and traditions. Nevertheless, they remained separate in the multi-tribal and even multi-state Scythian / Sarmatian empire.
Most information about Sarmatia arises from descriptions of conflicts, wars and peace talks. Romans did not create other literature in general. Observers of the Sarmatian peoples, on the basis of which the chronicles were written, dealt with the elites and not with the population of low social status. And these elites were rather uniform, Sarmatian or Scythian.
On the basis of historiographers’ accounts, it can be seen that the Bastarnaes were subject to kings (reges), lesser kings (reguli) and chiefs (duces) of prominent families (Liv. XL 5: nobiles iuvenes et regii quosdam generis … pollicebatur. XL 57 Cottonobilis Bastarna. XL 58 Chlodicus dux. XLIV 26 Chlodicus regulus XL 58. XLIV26 principes. Dio LI 24 Δέλδων βασιλεύς. CIL XIV 3608 regibus Bastarnarum). There was, therefore, a clear division of society among the Bastarnaes tribe, from which the ruling layer of aristocracy separated, which Tacyt describes as proceres (the most prominent citizens, the aristocracy). An expression of this can be discovered burials of Poieneşti-Lukaševka culture, which are clearly different from other types of equipment. There are three graves with weapons in Boroseşti (grave 29), Poieneşti (grave 592) and Răcătău and several richly equipped burials of women. As we can conclude, they give proof of the prevailing differences in the social status of the local population, which would be in line with the transmission of written sources.
It can be assumed that kings and aristocrats were family-related between different tribes and countries of Scythia / Sarmatia. This gave the best guarantee of inner peace and independence of the entire empire. Therefore, it can be safely said that the aristocracy (elite, gentry) were Scythian and then Sarmatian. And with this aristocracy one should identify the ethnos of Scythian and Sarmatian and not individual tribes that differ in language, culture and traditions. The Polish noblemen describing themselves as Sarmatians noticed this correctly and it does not matter how many of them were descendants of the old Sarmatian families.
Bastarnaes 125 CE. In the third and fourth centuries, they are located in the Black Sea area north of the Danube delta. The last information comes from 391 in connection with the Visigoths who came to these areas. Then the name of this people disappears. The 5th century is the Huns invasions and the beginning of large migrations mainly Sklavens / Slavs. The area along the Black Sea probably underwent major ethnic changes. We do not know much about the population living in the northern Carpathians and historical lands: Podole, Galicia and Volyn, which could be occupied by the Bastarnaes. In the fourth century, the Vandals resided in the Carpathian region and probably small groups of Bastarnaes joined them (estimated to be around 6% I2a1b + among the Vandals in Sardinia).
It is difficult to clearly define the relations between Bastarnaes and Sklavens in the 5th and 6th centuries. It seems that they eventually became Slavs and their separateness disappeared. It seems that they can be classified as proto-Slavs or pre-Slavs. Some of the Bastarnaes elites could change their social status to a lower one with the collapse of hierarchical Sarmatian-Scythian structures. At the turn of the 6th and 7th centuries, the name of the tribes of Croatians (Chrobatia) appears in the areas of Galicia. Perhaps they were descendants of the Bastarnaes. The contemporary structure of YDNA in Croatia (including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia) contains 30-50% of the haplogroup of Skyton’s descendants – mainly DinA.
White Croatia / Biała Chrobatia
It is very well described in wikipedia, so I am sending you the White Croatia. and to the croatian medieval history page. Nevertheless, I will provide some information. The Book of De Administrando Imperio, written by Constantine Porphyrogenet in the tenth century, is the most well-known source of information about the migration of Slavic peoples to the Balkans. He states that the Croatian migration was the first before all other Slavs from the region of White Croatia. De Administrando Imperio gives a folk tradition that in the seventh century seven tribes led by 5 brothers (Kluk, Lobel, Muhlo, Kosjenic and Hrvat) and two sisters (Buga and Tuga) emigrated to Dalmatia (the coastal part of today’s Croatia), but also to Pannonia and Illyria from the area of Great (White) Croatia, as part of the Croats’ migration in the seventh century, invited to settle in this deserted area by the Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Heraclius (610-641) in order to establish a shield against Awarom for his state. What prompted them to migrate? It is possible that climate cooling, overpopulation or harassment by other peoples. The “invitation” itself is an insufficient reason.
According to the writings of Bruno from Kwerfurt, the Croats lived between the Bug and the Dniester, and this Croatia was adjacent to Kievan Rus and White Croatia. From Konstantin’s text, one can learn that White Croatia in the mid-10th century was in the circle of Otto I -between Bavaria, Hungary and White Serbia. Behind the White Mountain (Babia Góra or Bavaria). There is no mistake, Bavaria as a duchy was very close to Poland then.
White Croatia is identified with southern Poland, Silesia and Moravia. Also with areas north of the Carpathians in Ukraine, which were more often described as Red Croatia. The colors in the names have meaning, because the directions of the nomadic nomadic people have been determined by the steppe world, and this has been taken over by others. North – black, west – white, east – green, south – red. Thus, White Croatia is its western part just as Belarus is west of Great Russia. There is also black Rus. Green Ukraine was a Far East region between Amur and the Pacific. There was also black Hungary (on the Volga River) for the distinction of those in Pannonia and Black Croats on the Don.
Red Croatia is southern, but it is still an area in this part of Europe. The term “Great Croatia” was later identified as the Galicia during the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From the time of Mieszko, White Croatia is most often in the borders of Lesser Poland or the country of the Vistula.
It can be assumed that the names of brothers and sisters who lead seven tribes are basically the names of tribes, and those from lands, rivers or settlements. The leader of this trip was Hrvat.
Genetic testing of current inhabitants of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina allows to determine the composition of this migration. It seems that hg I2a1b (even 2/3) dominated and the second one was hg R1a. What is important for the chroniclers were the Slavs. The thesis of the common ethnos of these haplogroups is confirmed. As for the legend, there will be a lot of truth in it. People invent fairy tales for children, but not stories of their origin. The names of brothers and sisters are interesting. They do not resemble Slavs, nor real names or proper names. This may indicate the advantage of this “non-Slavic” factor.
Migration of Sklavens (Slavs)
Slavs under the name Antes and Sklavens appear for the first time in the Byzantine writings at the beginning of the 6th century. Byzantine historians during the reign of Justinian I (527-565), such as Prokopius of Caesarea, Jordanes and Theophylact Simocatta, describe these tribes coming from the Carpathian area, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, attacking the Danube provinces in the east of the Empire (Byzantium). They notice so many of them that after their march the grass did not grow back.
Prokopius wrote in 545 that “Sklavs and Antes really had one name in the distant past, because they were called Sporoi in ancient times.” He described them as barbarians who lived in a democracy and believe in one god, “the creator of lightning” (Perun) to whom they sacrificed. They lived in disperse and constantly changed their settlements. As for warfare, they were mainly infantry soldiers with small shields and battle axes, lightly dressed, some entered the battle naked with only genitals shielded. Their language is “barbaric” (that is, they do not speak Greek), and both tribes do not differ in appearance, they are tall and strong, “while their bodies and hair are neither very bright, nor light, nor completely dark, but they are all lightly browned and live heavily, not caring about bodily comforts … “. Jordanes described the Sklavens having swamps and forests for their seats. Another source from the 6th century refers to them as living among impassable forests, rivers, lakes and swamps
Migrations of the Dinaric/Slavic haplogroup
The directions of migration of the Slavs in the 5th-10th centuries correspond to the current occurrence of the Dinaric haplogroup, hence the conclusion that they migrated together. Of course, this does not mean that before the 5th century AD in other areas there was no haplogupa R1a. In the case of I2a1b Dinaric, the new Skyton line was not present outside the putative area of the DinA, DinB and DinC mutations: Carpathians, Volyn, Galicia, Podole, Bessarabia (Moldova). This area and perhaps Polesia, when it is mentioned that the Slavs lived in forests and swamps, was exceptional at the beginning of our era, since it was the source of migration since the 5th century. Most likely, the population increased numerically and that was the reason for migration, and at least on the example of the haplogroup, this is confirmed. There are no traces of older YDNA mutations specific to the regions of the southern Balkans and information about possible migrations from the Balkans to the area of modern Russia.
Since there was also migration from the region of Ukraine and Poland to the north to the central part of the current European Russia, therefore the climate theory associated with cooling between the 5th and the 10th century has little support. So what were the reasons for, for example, the migration of Croats or Serbs in the seventh century or earlier Sklavens who filled the depopulated areas as a result of constant wars in this region of the Balkans? Perhaps the rapid development of agriculture on the Ukrainian molds and, as a result, overpopulation. Maybe the breakthrough was using horses for field work instead of oxen.
BESKIDY – THE LAND OF WHITE CROATS
Mucharz -a village in Poland located in the Lesser Poland voivodship, near to Wadowice on the Mucharskie Lake. Report of the Archaeological Commission of the Jagiellonian University in 1903, from research carried out in the area of Mucharz, confirms that Mucharz was a center of pagan religious worship. From other sources, it appears that the population in the pre-Christian period came here from a distance of even 50 kilometers to the sacred place of their worship.
In 880, the Vistulans received Christianity from the hands of Saint Methodius or his disciples (missionaries). The Slavic temple existing here was later turned into a Christian one. The founder of the church was, according to the applications, Saint Wojciech around 996, setting him on his way to Rome, and he returned to his death. For some time the church was Arian. This place was so important that Mucharz was recorded in 1325 as a parish village, which was subordinated to the branch church in Wadowice.
The name of the village is unique and certainly Mucharz is a very old name, hence its archaic sound. The ending in the name ‘-arz’ occurs in the few names of Polish towns, just a few villages and the well-known district of Krakow, ‘Kleparz’. And the ending itself -rz is more popular, for example, Sandomierz (Sandomir), Racibórz (Racibór), Siewierz (Siewier). It can be assumed that a similar transformation of the -r to -rz extension took place also in the case of the Mucharz name. So we have the earlier name Muchar / Muhar.
Chrobats and Chrwats on the map.
One of the tribes of Chrobats migrating to Dalmatia was led by Muhlo. Is the similarity to the name Mucharz accidental? Beskidy is an area identified with White Croatia. Another version of the etymology of this name can be derived from góry / hory / hary (eng. mountans) as in ‘Harpaty’ (Carpathians) or ‘Horwaty’ (Croats). One of the surrounding mountains is called ‘Tatry’, although this name is identified with the Celtic origin by similarity to the French tertre, hill ‘or Dacian or Illyrian (Trtra in Herzegovina). It is more likely that the name ‘Trtra’ was moved by migrating Croats from the Beskidy region to Dalmatia.
MOR – God of Power, Son of Czarnogłowy (Black God) and Białobogi (White Goddess) . Mor brings plagues and doom, he is freezing and cuts all life, making him dream and erase life. He puts ice on rivers and lakes, he brings down various defeats flowing mainly from post-winter thaws, but also from the so-called plague plague. There are many activities around the world and all of them can be known from his name. https://wiaraprzyrodzona.wordpress.com/2015/03/03/mor/
A place on Mount Mucharska could be dedicated to the god Mor. Thus it was Góra Mora / Móra. The mountain is Hora-Hara so we have Hara Móra> Mór-Hara> Mór-Har> Móhar> Mucharz
Slavic tribes in the Balkans in the 6th century CE.
580total visits,1visits today